Section 2 Installation Guidelines

  1. GENERAL

    • Kayden electronics are designed to be universal for flow, level, interface and temperature applications and with most liquids, gases and slurries. The user can take advantage of this flexibility through:

      • Correct setup of the electronics and
      • Proper physical installation of the sensor.
      Location:
      • Consider the need for easy access in order to view the operation and make any required field adjustments.
      • Provide at least 12 inches (30 cm) clearance if possible to allow access for setup and viewing after installation.
      Shock and Vibration:
      • Install the switch/transmitter so as to minimize any effects due to vibration, shock and extreme temperatures.
      Temperature:
      • The continuous operating temperature limits of the Electronics Module is -55°C to +65°C (-67°F to +149°F). Ambient temperatures in excess of +65°C (+149°F) require the electronics to be mounted remotely from the sensor. Consult Kayden.com or the factory for more information.
      • The continuous operating temperature limits of the sensors are -45°C to +200°C (-50°F to +392°F).
      Turbulence / Interference:
      • Pumps, fans, valves, or pipe bends of 90° or more will cause turbulence or significant variance in the flow which will affect the repeatability of the switch/transmitter. Care should be taken to minimize this possibility.
      • For Pump Flow/No-Flow detection the best/preferred installation point is on the inlet side of the pump. The discharge side will have turbulence, reverse flow and an undeveloped flow profile. These factors will greatly reduce repeatability and accuracy.
      • Keep the sensor away from any devices that may cause physical damage such as: agitators, valves, injectors, etc.

        Note:

        Many times, especially when replacing a different type of instrument, the installation point is predetermined and is difficult to change.

        Kayden switches/transmitters have specific design features that allow them to perform well even in difficult locations and applications.

        Please consult your local representative or Kayden for questions or installation / setup recommendations.

      Figure3a - Pump Flow Detection
      Figure 3a - Pump Flow Detection
  2. Application Considerations

    • Application Considerations - Flow

      Flow

      Ideal Process Conditions

      Liquids:
      • Consistent process composition & temperature
      • Sufficient straight run flow profile (minimizes turbulence)
      • Recommended minimum of 5 pipe diameters from any disturbance
      Air & Gas:
      • Consistent process composition & temperature
      • Sufficient straight run flow profile (minimizes turbulence)
      • Clean and dry
      Slurries:
      • Consistent process composition & temperature
      • Sufficient straight run flow profile (minimizes turbulence)
      Emulsion:
      • Consistent process composition & temperature
      • Sufficient straight run flow profile (minimizes turbulence)

      Undesirable Process Conditions

      Liquids:
      • Inconsistent process composition or temperature
      • Insufficient straight run
      • Turbulence
      • Aerated fluids
      Air & Gas:
      • Inconsistent process composition or temperature
      • Wet or saturated air/gas
      Slurries:
      • Inconsistent process composition or temperature
      • Insufficient straight run
      • Turbulence
      • Aerated fluids
      Emulsion:
      • Inconsistent process composition & temperature
      • Insufficient straight run
      • Turbulence
      • Aerated fluids
      Solids:
      • Dry granulated processes are NOT good candidates for thermal switches

      Application Principles - Flow, Level, Interface & Temperature

      Application Considerations - Level

      Level

      Ideal Process Conditions

      Liquids:
      • Consistent process composition
      • Non-turbulent
      Slurries:
      • Consistent process composition
      Emulsion:
      • Consistent process composition

      Undesirable Process Conditions

      Liquids:
      • Inconsistent process composition
      • Turbulence
      • Large temperature swings
      Slurries:
      • Inconsistent process composition
      • Turbulence
      • Large temperature swings
      Emulsion:
      • Inconsistent process composition
      • Turbulence
      • Large temperature swings
      Solids:
      • Dry granulated processes are NOT good candidates for thermal switches

      Application Considerations - Interface

      Interface

      Ideal Process Conditions

      Liquids:
      • Liquid to Liquid:
      • Consistent process composition & temperature
      • Non-turbulent applications
      • Large differential in thermal conductivities
      Air & Gas to Liquid:
      • Consistent process composition & temperature
      • Non-turbulent applications
      • Dry gas
      Emulsion:
      • Consistent process composition & temperature
      • Large differential in thermal conductivities

      Undesirable Process Conditions

      Liquid to Liquid:
      • Inconsistent process composition or temperature
      • High aeration
      • High turbulence
      • Small differential in thermal conductivities
      Air & Gas to Liquid:
      • Inconsistent process composition or temperature
      • High turbulence
      Emulsion:
      • Inconsistent process composition or temperature
      • High aeration
      • High turbulence
      • Small differential in thermal conductivities
      Solids:
      • Dry granulated processes are NOT good candidates for thermal switches
  3. GUIDELINES FOR PIPE MOUNTING

    • The CLASSIC 800 is a flow, point level, interface and temperature sensing device. The sensor tip must be inserted in the proper location and to the proper depth in order to accurately react to your process conditions.

      The following information, including Figures 5 through 9, should be considered as text book examples for proper installation.

       

      Notes:

      Most pipe connections for instrumentation are a variation of a butt-weld-type such as the weldolet or threadolet shown in Figure 4. The length of this connection must be added to the pipe diameter when determining the insertion length for the sensor. The Kayden literature refers to this “insertion length” dimension as the “U” length, Figure 5.

       

      Figure 4 - Threadolet
      Figure 4 - Threadolet
      Figure 5 - InsertionULength
      Figure 5 - Insertion 'U' Length

       

      Horizontal Pipe – Side Mount (Ideal)

      As shown in Figure 6a, ensure sensing tip is inserted to a point between 5% and 75% of the inside diameter of the pipe.

      Avoid locations where sediment may accumulate and isolate the sensing tip from the process.

      Horizontal Pipe – Top Mount

      Gas will always collect at the top of any pipe, ensure sensing tip is inserted to a point where it will be constantly and fully exposed to the desired process media.

      Horizontal Pipe – Bottom Mount

      Because sediment will always collect at the bottom of any pipe, ensure sensing tip is inserted to a point where it will be constantly and fully exposed to the desired process media. Avoid locations where sediment may accumulate and eventually isolate the sensing tip from the process.

      Figure 6a - Horizontal Pipe, Side Mounting
      Figure 6a - Horizontal Pipe,
      Side Mounting
      Figure 6b - Horizontal Pipe, Top / Bottom Mounting
      Figure 6b - Horizontal Pipe,
      Top / Bottom Mounting

      For vertical pipe mounting, Kayden strongly recommends installing the switch/transmitter at a point of UPWARD process flow to ensure continued total immersion of the sensing tip.

      If there is no other option except to install the flow switch/transmitter in a vertical pipe with downward flow, the following information must be considered:

      • A “waterfall effect” may occur in vertical pipe with low flow rates. The process may become substantially aerated and will therefore cause the switch/transmitter to interpret the aeration as a lower flow rate (see Figure 8).
      • The line should be full liquid/slurry at all times.
      • The switch/transmitter must be far enough from an open outlet that air cavitation does not extend to the sensing tip and cause a false flow signal. A constriction at the outlet avoids this problem.

       

      Vertical Pipe – Side Mount (Acceptable)

      • Ensure sensing tip is fully inside the pipe wall as a minimum and to the center of the pipe as a maximum.
      • When installing the switch in vertical piping, Kayden strongly recommends installing thermal switches at a point of UPWARD process flow to ensure continued total immersion of the sensing tip.

       

      Vertical Pipe – Side Mount – Downward Flow:

      • Is only recommended for higher flow rates where the LINE IS KEPT FULL OF LIQUID/SLURRY.
      • For installation in a vertical gravity flow, the switch must be distant enough from an open outlet that air cavitation does not affect the sensing tip and cause a false flow signal. A constriction at the outlet avoids this problem.
      • A waterfall effect will occur in vertical pipe with low flow rates. Also, the process is likely to become substantially aerated. The switch will interpret the aeration as a substantially lower flow rate and possibly cause a false low flow alarm.

       

      Vertical Pipe – Side Mount – Top & Bottom Mount (Less Desirable)

      • Positioning the sensor on a corner or elbow is not recommended as the process will be turbulent. The switch may interpret the turbulence as a constantly changing flow rate and fail to alarm as required.

       

      Figure 7 - Horizontal Pipe, Sensor Positioning
      Figure 7 - Horizontal Pipe, Sensor Positioning
      Figure 8 - Vertical Pipe, Flow Up & Down
      Figure 8 - Vertical Pipe,
      Flow Up & Down
  4. INSTALLING THE SENSOR

    • Having followed the installation guidelines in Section 2, “Installation Guidelines”, Subheadings I through III, you may now proceed with installation.

      CautionCaution
      • Use proper eye protection and any other safety equipment as required by your installation site.
      • Check electrical power to ensure that all power has been disconnected and ‘locked out’.
      • Ensure the process tank and/or line pressures are ‘zero’.
      • Ensure that steam, hot water, acids or any other potentially hazardous media will not be released.
      • Follow all safety precautions as specified for your installation site and / or local codes.
    • Process Connections
      • Threads: Coat with a thin layer of thread tape or sealant/lubricant.
        Do not overtighten threads when installing.
      • Flanges: To ensure a correct seal on mating flanges, mount and tighten flanges according to ANSI standards.
    • Process Connections
      • To optimize the sensor’s performance ensure the sensor is positioned as outlined below. As shown in Figure 9 below, ensure the arrows etched on the sensor flats are oriented parallel to the process flow.
    • Figure 9 - Sensor Orientation For Horizontal Flow and Level

      Note:
      1. Liquids & Slurries: When mounted in a tee or section of pipe larger than the normal process pipe, position sensor at a sufficient insertion point so as to avoid contact with any air or gas bubbles that occur in the larger section of pipe.
      2. Avoid locations where sediment may accumulate and eventually isolate the sensing tip from the process.

        Sediment covering the sensor tip may prevent the switch/transmitter from being able to sense any changes in the process as the sediment will insulate the sensing tip.

  5. ELECTRICAL

    1. General
      • Ensure all electrical installation is in accordance with all applicable local and national electrical code requirements. The CLASSIC 800 series standard configuration includes an explosion-proof enclosure.

        The CLASSIC 800 Series is approved to Factory Mutual (FM), Canadian Standards Association (CSA) and Underwriters Laboratory (UL) standards and must be installed in accordance with these applicable codes and standards.

        Canadian Standards Association
        Factory Mutual
      • Power Supply: For applications using a DC power supply, ensure the power has less than 2% ripple.

      • Switch/Transmitter Enclosure: The switch/transmitter enclosure must be grounded in accordance with local and national electrical codes. The most effective grounding method is a direct internal connection to earth ground with minimal impedance.

        The (green) Internal Ground Connection screw is located inside the electrical enclosure and is identified by the universal ground symbol.

      CautionCaution
      1. Mount the enclosure so that moisture/liquids will not enter the switch/transmitter enclosure. If conduit connections are not sealed, moisture accumulation can damage the switch/transmitter.
      2. Check electrical power to ensure that all power has been disconnected and ‘locked out’.
      3. Do not run the transient protection ground wire in the same conduit as the signal wiring as the ground wire may carry excessive current if a lightning strike occurs.
    2. Wiring Connections to the Switch/Transmitter

      To make the electrical connections to the CLASSIC 800, it is necessary to remove the Electronics Module as follows:

      1. Remove the Cover:
        • Turn the external stainless steel locking screw clockwise with a 5/32” (#10) Allen Key and turn the cover counter clockwise until it can be lifted off the enclosure.

      2. Remove the Electronics Module:
        • To remove the Electronics Module, pull upward with an equal force on both stainless steel handles. Care should be taken to avoid damaging the sensor cable attached to the Electronics Module. Practice ESD (electrostatic discharge) procedures when handling the Electronics Module.

          Electrostatic discharge may damage the electronics! Never place the Electronics Module on a surface or pass it to another person in a way that would allow an electrostatic discharge to pass through it.

      3. Removing the Sensor Connector from the Electronics Module:
        • Refer to Figure 10.

          The Electronics Module must be removed from the enclosure before any wiring can be connected to the Mounting Base Plate.

          Disconnect the sensor connector from the Electronics Module by disengaging the locking tab and pulling (with fingers) on the corners of the small black connector. Do not pull directly on the wires. The use of pliers may damage the connector.

           

      • Figure 10 - Disconnecting Sensor Connector From The Electronics Module
      • Input Power Connections:

        The CLASSIC 800 will accept 12-24 VDC or 115-230 VAC input power via the universal power supply by wiring the Electronics Module according to input power available.

        • For AC power, connect the HOT line to VAC-H, the NEUTRAL to VAC-N and the GROUND wire to the green grounding screw in the enclosure, also indicated by the ground symbol.
        • For DC Power, connect the positive voltage to +VDC and the common or negative to COM. (see Figure 12 - Wiring Connection Diagram)
      • Wiring the Relay Contact(s):
        • The CLASSIC 800 features two (2) sealed independent relays, which may be wired for Normally Closed (NC) or Normally Open (NO) operation. Relay 1/Relay 2 are connected as shown in Figure 12.
      • Replacing the Electronics Module in the Enclosure:

        Repeat steps 2B and 2C in reverse order. The cable from the sensor to the Electronics Module should be gently positioned between the outside of the Mounting Base Plate with green & black connectors and the inside of the enclosure. If the excess length of the cable interferes with the mounting of the Electronics Module then gently rotate the Electronics Module one full turn to put a twist in the sensor cable.

        • There is no surplus room in the enclosure for excessively long wires.
        • Use a quality data communications cable for all non-power connections (RS-485). Ensure that the shield is sufficient to allow the cable to coexist with the power connections. Consult your local electrical code for requirements.
        • All wires must be kept free and clear of the green & black mounting connectors on the Mounting Base Plate to prevent interference with the mounting of the Electronics Module.
        • Treat the Electronics Module and sensor cable with care. While the CLASSIC 800 is a rugged unit, these assemblies can be damaged if mishandled.
        Figure 11 - Classic 800 Mounting Base Plate - Wiring Terminal
        Figure 11 - Classic 800
        Mounting Base Plate - Wiring Terminal
    • Figure 12 - Classic 800 Wiring Connection Diagram
      Figure 12 - Classic 800 Wiring Connection Diagram
  6. TESTING THE INSTALLATION

    1. Self-test Diagnostics
      • The CLASSIC 800 continuously executes a self-test on its internal components and firmware. All diagnostics are controlled by the microprocessor and are independent of the operation of the switch/ transmitter and the process conditions.
      • At initial power-on the CLASSIC 800 performs a complete self-test of all hardware and firmware. During this test all LEDs on the Thermal Signal display will flash for approximately 2 seconds.
      • If a Fault is discovered during the self-test a Fault Code will be displayed and the relay will de-energize. (Fault Codes are explained in Section 7 “Troubleshooting”).
    2. Power
      • Turn on the power to the switch/transmitter and allow the sensor to heat up and stabilize (approximately 90 seconds).
      • At the conclusion of the self-test, if there is no fault condition present, the Run Mode LED will begin flashing and a single LED (in the Thermal Signal Bar Graph) will appear on the display.

        As the heater element warms up, the switch/transmitter will respond to the process conditions and this LED indicator will move to the left.

      • Relay 1 and/or Relay 2 LEDs may illuminate depending upon the Thermal Signal, relay set point(s) and the programmed Relay condition (set to energize ABOVE or BELOW set point).
    3. Manual Test
      • Immerse the sensing tip in the actual process media by filling the pipe or vessel to the point at which the switch/transmitter will actuate or alternatively, into a container of process media.
      • When the sensor is alternated between wet and dry conditions (in and out of the media), the illuminated Thermal Signal LEDs should move and the relay set point LED(s) should change state (ON/OFF).

        The degree and speed of the movement of the Thermal Signal LED depends completely on how well the current setup of the CLASSIC 800 corresponds to the process conditions of the test.*

        Note:

        * Because a complete setup may not have yet been performed allow at least 20 - 30 seconds for the sensor and relay to react when alternating between wet and dry conditions (in and out of the media).

      • A complete explanation of setup procedures follows in Section 3 “Setup & Operation” and in the Quick Setup Guide for the CLASSIC 800.